Victor Henry magic based on the observation of the world and of the properties of things. He tells us that we represent in our mind, the primitive man; surrounded by thousand dangers, real or imagined, known or mysterious: hurricanes and storms, the overflow of rivers, the detachment of the rocks; wild beasts, the eclipses of Sun and moon. Apart from the moment in which the fire occurred this became the best agent for the defense of the wild beasts. Thereafter he became the natural ally of man, against all harmful. This is the kickoff from where derives the universal role of fire in the ancient and modern magic.
In our civilized society, at least for the historian of the rites, the candles of the menorah placed alongside the dead, are the walls that protect it against the spirits of darkness. According to Tylor Occult Science or magic is based on the Association of ideas. In this way it tries to discover, predict and produce effects through processes that have only an ideal meaning. For him, the development of the magical arts, have arisen from confusion between an ideal connection with another Royal. Lehmann defines superstition and magic.
Superstition is any belief that is not based on a particular religion or which is in contradiction with the scientific conception of nature in a given moment in history. Any act that is derived from a superstition refers to magic, whatever its natural character. Magic does not necessarily imply a belief in demons, nor has an absolute character, the distinction between magic and religion, since it depends on the conditions of society as it referred to. The magic still exists currently in Spiritism and occultism. After having analyzed by experimental psychology procedures some of the abnormal phenomena of the individual (suggestion, hypnotism, sleep, etc), it concludes that the magic, is composed of a set of illusions, prepositions and errors, of perception caused by phenomena that is fear and hope.