Victor Henry magic based on the observation of the world and of the properties of things. He tells us that we represent in our mind, the primitive man; surrounded by thousand dangers, real or imagined, known or mysterious: hurricanes and storms, the overflow of rivers, the detachment of the rocks; wild beasts, the eclipses of Sun and moon. Apart from the moment in which the fire occurred this became the best agent for the defense of the wild beasts. Thereafter he became the natural ally of man, against all harmful. This is the kickoff from where derives the universal role of fire in the ancient and modern magic.
In our civilized society, at least for the historian of the rites, the candles of the menorah placed alongside the dead, are the walls that protect it against the spirits of darkness. According to Tylor Occult Science or magic is based on the Association of ideas. In this way it tries to discover, predict and produce effects through processes that have only an ideal meaning. For him, the development of the magical arts, have arisen from confusion between an ideal connection with another Royal. Lehmann defines superstition and magic.
Superstition is any belief that is not based on a particular religion or which is in contradiction with the scientific conception of nature in a given moment in history. Any act that is derived from a superstition refers to magic, whatever its natural character. Magic does not necessarily imply a belief in demons, nor has an absolute character, the distinction between magic and religion, since it depends on the conditions of society as it referred to. The magic still exists currently in Spiritism and occultism. After having analyzed by experimental psychology procedures some of the abnormal phenomena of the individual (suggestion, hypnotism, sleep, etc), it concludes that the magic, is composed of a set of illusions, prepositions and errors, of perception caused by phenomena that is fear and hope.
We until now verify the backward movement of the call working class and the persistent dissolution of trade unionism, to which we must add the reduction of the middle-class. That commonly has been called national identity surrounds persistently in the limb. Against the globalising fact the State is impotent to respond to its inhabitants. The described original contract as it bases of the Be-nation comes undermined then every day the citizen does not find answer in its cession of rights to that being supra called State. It comprises of the evident crisis of the political institutions and the collapse of the calls leaders. This crisis of identity takes place because the common values jump by airs. The nation tends to also disintegrate and its protective package called State.
The problems are had globalised and already the Be-nation it does not have way to reach them. The problem of the contamination, with the destruction of the ozone layer; the propagation of the terrorism; of AIDS or other virosis; the internationalized financial system; the nuclear potential; the drug trafficking; the extreme poverty. Problems all that have forced the creation of transnational or supranational organizations where the word sovereignty has become hollow. Already the Be-nation is lost the monopoly of the control of the events within its territory. This transference of the old concept to supranational organizations either does not seem to cause positive results.
To it is necessary to add regionalisms and until the tribalismo. The most advanced of the processes of construction of great supranational spaces, the European, presents/displays crisis of impotence in advancing, although the existing institutions work moderately of acceptable way. The political conformation of Europe pauses in the national votings, while every day more inhabitants of the countries integrate that it are considered European, before Italian, German or Spaniards. That is to say, disintegration in the operational ranges and loss of the original sense of nationality for the sake of a major where the old Be-nation is considered as soon as a member of a much more ample community.