In order to improve the characteristics of lacquers and enamels of air drying, as well as to accelerate curing drying them sometimes carried out at elevated temperatures (40-60 C). Main of lacquers have the following features. Oil varnishes form (after drying), flexible elastic film of yellow color, resistant to moisture and mineral oil. On heat resistance of the film of varnish are in class A (up to 105 C). Since the oil varnishes are used in short supply (linseed and tung) oil, then their use is limited and they are replaced by synthetic resins for lacquers, more resistant to thermal aging. Bitumen-oil varnishes form a flexible film in black, resistant to moisture, but is easily soluble in mineral oil (transformer and lubricating). Because of the high availability and good insulating properties of bitumen-oil varnishes widely used in electrical engineering.
For heat resistance, these coatings are in class A insulation (105 C). Alkyd (glyptal) and oil-glyptal varnishes and enamels have good bonding strength with respect to the mica paper, cloth and some plastics. The films of these paints have a high thermal stability (class B). They are resistant to the heated mineral oil, but require a hot (oven) drying at temperatures of 105-150 C. Pure glyptal Coatings based on unmodified glyph Traveling resins form hard rigid film (paint number 1155 and others) used in the manufacture of hard mica insulation (solid Micanites). Gliftale-oil varnish form a flexible film dark yellow. Alkyd-melamine varnish – varnish is a composite consisting of 84% oil-varnish glyptal number 1154 and 16% of the melamine-formaldehyde resin, introduced to improve the water resistance and shorten the curing varnish. Organosilicon varnishes and enamels have high heat resistance and can operate continuously at 180-200 C (Temperature class NICs) so they are used in combination with glass fiber and mica insulation. Films These lacquers and enamels have high electrical characteristics, which vary little in the aging process.
Increasingly, instead of all the usual mixture of sand and cement, which is prepared immediately before dosing and which are "by eye", the builders began to use it dry mixes, produced in industrial conditions. The benefits and advantages does the use of dry mixes in the building: saving time and place – eliminating the need for acquisition, storage and blending of all components in the composite Ability to produce the proportions of a mixture of any complexity on order – due to flexibility of the production process for process equipment in Europe No loss of quality – a solution can be prepared in necessary at this point amounts Saving transportation costs – the use of dry mixes eliminates constant supply to the building site ready solution, which drastically reduces transportation costs Guarantee high quality – the right recipe at the expense of accurate dosage of components (quality of ready-mix compares to cooked on the spot) What is a dry mix? Current dry mixes it – multicomponent formulations, which in addition to the mineral binder and filler present complex chemical additives regulating the speed of setting and hardening binders, and provide the necessary physical and mechanical properties of the solution after solidification. The most commonly referred to as dry mixes simple sand-cement mixture (sometimes they add lime, ground limestone, ash, thermal power plants) marks 100 and 150, put up in Kraft bags and used for masonry and plastering work. In such mixtures, using screened out of coarse grains and dried sand, which provides long-term storage and simplifies the preparation of mortar. But in modern sense of the term "dry blend" to such free-flowing compositions can be applied fairly conventional. Composition of dry mixes in any of the dry mixture includes: binder (cement, gypsum and lime or combination), neutral fillers to provide the optimum amount (usually a sand), and special modifying additives, which give the necessary properties of the mixture.
If you have recently made exclusively from the window of the tree, now is the main material used in the manufacture of windows – this is PVC (polyvinyl chloride), which is produced with oil and salt. The windows of PVC, which were first manufactured in 1954, and today enjoy an enviable popularity due to its resistance to various weather conditions, leakage and other properties. In the factories of PVC profiles made of PVC by extrusion. During this process PVC is mixed with the desired additives, is heated to high temperatures, as a result, a viscous mass that needs to push through appropriate form, and then cooled. This leads to the formation of empty PVC profile, which is also called multi-due to the empty air chambers within it.
PVC windows because of this structure have remarkable level of sound insulation and retain heat wonderfully. PVC Profiles are produced by all plants on the same methodology, then why do they differ in their value? It turns out that the price of PVC profiles much will depend on the included supplements. All kinds of additives used in the production of PVC profiles, not cheap. Using the fact that people can not understand what additives are contained in some double-glazed, many firms producing the window, trying to save these supplements. For example, the PVC profile additive titanium of low quality or deficient titanium oxide, intensely yellow.
Advantages of PVC windows consist of a number of useful properties of those they receive in the manufacturing process. The low level of thermal conductivity of PVC profile and use the installation of additional seals to prevent cracks contribute keeping the heat in the house. Properly mounted eurowinows guarantee your home, office, apartment warmth and comfort in any weather. From dust, street noise, moisture, protect your apartment a special design glass. And from widest range of PVC profiles can be easily pick the one that best fits the design of houses, apartments and other premises. It should be noted another important aspect, which consists of multi-year service, which is quite a lot – more than 40 years. Compared with conventional, wooden, PVC windows do not require heavy maintenance and constant touch-up. Another undeniable advantage is the presence of various ways of opening windows system mikroprovetrivaniya. To wash these windows fit perfectly soapy water, put on a rag.
And the major manufacturers of paints must include the product line of products for “metal”. It’s usually covering forming a solid film upon drying of organic substances with the pigments and fillers. The film thickness is determined by the purpose coatings, and protective properties – thickness and nature of the interaction with the surface base. Group means for the protection of metal surfaces are three: a primer, paint and generic drugs, “three in one” (for example, Alpina Direkt Auf Rost from Caparol, Poli-Hammer of “Poly-P”), which are applied directly to rust. Primer – irreplaceable ways to combat atmospheric oxidation, one-or two-layer coating produced before staining, in addition to the protective properties of telling a better topcoat adhesion to the substrate. When selecting the composition is important to know that for various metals using different primers.
This is the case when a label on the can “universal ground” should be taken skeptically. Ferrous metals require high corrosion protection, while for surface color in the applied composition should have a good adhesion. The protective properties of zinc are well known. Galvanized surface is not longer susceptible to corrosion, and therefore for steel and other ferrous metals better considered alkyd primer containing zinc. There are several varieties of it: the zinc phosphate (used for alkyd paints) to zinc chromate (composition used for the same purpose, but it is also suitable for timber surfaces).
For aluminum base using special primers for the zinc-based paint or urethane. Copper, brass and bronze are usually not dyed – these metals are delivered to market with a factory processing, which protects surface and emphasizing its beauty. If the integrity of this “brand” cover over time is violated, it is best to completely remove with a solvent, after which the base should be polished and cover epoxy or polyurethane varnish.
Carefully inspect the samples, consider how easy they open and close the well or fixed sash in position, how well the applied decorative and protective cover. Find out who will install the windows, because of how well-organized installation of windows, depends largely on the life of window designs. Experienced and qualified experts to install windows perform installation work in accordance with GOST 30971-2002 "Stitches assembly sites contiguity window units to wall openings." In addition, for your own peace of mind ask about reviews of previous clients, and if you want to learn how to stand in the window of the "natural conditions" not too lazy to go and see them at least from the street. Guarantee given by the manufacturer for their products, also helps you understand whether or not to trust the company. Too little time (one year) suggests that the firm does not assume full responsibility for their own products. Warranty period of 20 years and more clearly unrealistic, so to call them companies seriously not worth it. So, we list the main criteria for deciding to evaluate the reputation of the firm.
1. Chuck Berry is likely to increase your knowledge. Experience. The presence of complete luxury private projects. Age of the firm. 2. Real terms and real prices, the normal discount 3. Openness. Good company, know their job well and on time fulfills customers' orders, ready to provide all the information – both about themselves and about the production, coatings, fittings, installation technology.
4. Quality of the Materials and Technology: Eurowindows evrokachestva – is the European woodworking machines, Siberian wood without defects (knots, blue stain), a strong joint (double-spike-and-groove), European fittings (Siegen, Roto, Maco) polished float glass, special import elastic coating designed for exterior use on wood (Tsovosan, Zikkens, during handling, Remmers, etc.). 5. The warranty on the windows and installation work. Too little or too great warranty should alert you. The most common among manufacturers has become a three-year warranty, but some companies are confident in their product quality, guarantee 5 years of uninterrupted service. We tried to analyze and explain all the aspects that will help you make the right choice.
Latex paint, as well as styrene-butadiene, have a high resistance to water, whereas PVA-based materials is much lower. By the way, acrylic paint and win on lightfastness. As a rule, are the color, the buyer thinks about, take a glossy or matte paint. Both options have their advantages and disadvantages. For example, the mat is less stable to mechanical stress, but it can help hide irregularities substrate. While glossy literally bares every bump or dent in the wall. In addition, the matte paint gradually begin to displace its glossy "competitors" are increasingly encountered in contemporary interior design.
Water or synthetic? Another factor determining the choice of colors, is its environmental friendliness. Especially in cases where the repair is done because of the upcoming completion of the family. Of course, the guarantor environmentally friendly paint is its producer. For example, almost all paint and varnish materials manufactured in the USA or Western Europe do not contain lead, mercury and other harmful organisms for our agents. Still better once take care of the healthy home and buy a water-soluble dye, rather than buying even the most expensive synthetic. In addition to the environmental properties of soluble water cover have a number of advantages.
This is the already mentioned light resistance, and greater resistance to moisture and fire. In addition, these paints are more practical: they spent more economical and faster drying. Throw in an unlimited color palette, and get almost perfect material, which is second only to the synthetic colors of paint metal surfaces (such as water pipes or radiators) and a wooden "woodwork." Often savings rate determines the quality in the choice of colors is the price. But, in practice, good price offer is not always a guarantee of economical purchase. This may surprise the buyer, but obviously for the professionals, the secrets we share with you. One of the subtleties is an integrated approach to painting. Because this process involves not only the choice of the paint itself, but also a range of supporting materials such as fillers and ground. Best of all, not only do those purchases in a store building materials, but does restrict one manufacturer that will provide the perfect compatibility of all purchased materials. Another trick is that the paint is to compare not at the price per kilogram, and for the area which it covers the kilogram. Do not forget to inform the consultant that is going to paint. Rather, special paint for the ceiling will show better results than versatile, and cost will be cheaper. And, of course, check with a certificate in the paint, even if you completely trust the seller. From this document you can find out more, not listed on the package information about the properties and limitations on the use of purchased material. And good luck to be repaired!
With all the natural simple – clean it, does not allow pathogenic bacteria to multiply, and resistant to fire and effects of household chemicals, does not attract dust. Linoleum hard enough, is not deformed by mechanical action and temperature difference. PVC vinyl is cheaper, and if you decide to choose it, it is better to natural substrate. The substrate is made of thick natural fabrics allow less tired legs and prevents the accumulation of static electricity. Planning and design of today modern interior design with an open kitchen layout is divided into zones not only by walls or a bar, but with the combined floor coverings. When the joint space space "flows" from one to another, you can either clear to carve out a zone, or, conversely, to make it as a continuation of the previous one.
For example, if a combination of tile flooring and kitchen area will be allocated from the general interior of the apartment. Whatever coating you choose, kitchen should be in harmony with the rest of the apartment interiors, and much depends on the shape and size of the kitchen and on your furniture. However, the most important thing for any kitchen – is safe and most comfortable conditions for work. No beauty can not be justified, if at the time of cooking and other kitchen work owners are constantly in danger of injury. It has become fashionable to organize the kitchen area on the podium, and even when it is technically unfounded.
In this case the owners often do not think about how they will move out of the kitchen into the dining room and back, carrying the dishes and trays of food. Formed in the device the catwalk step can cause constant discomfort and serious injury, so you should always keep in mind about the basic purpose and plan for its cuisine with maximum security. In general, the material for the kitchen flooring must be not only durable, beautiful, and water resistant, but also safe, allowing the kitchen to feel free and comfortable. To take into account all these factors, as well as compliance with the basic your kitchen style apartment or house, it is best to use the services of professional designers.
But the imposition of a separate group is widely accepted as mineral filler gives the coatings is very high decorative quality. Usually the size of the granules from 0.1 to 1.8 mm, at least – 3-4 mm. For maximum effect, decorative beads may be stained by special trains of high strength at the factory. Application materials for finishing works in this group (so the same as other kinds of ornamental plaster) can be excluded from the process operation puttying finish, a slight defect in a finished surface (unloaded cracked, chipped, uneven) equalized by the material itself. Can be applied to concrete, plaster, drywall, paneling, wood, etc. The material is applied with a spatula (trowel) or spray (with the size of the granules 0.1-0.8 mm). After drying, the resulting surface (in Depending on the grain filling) becomes grossly rough or nearly smooth, like a stone. The coatings have high mechanical strength and repairability.
Special decorative coating. This is usually finished materials such as many-component sealant after mixing, which is obtained decorative coating. Depending on the use of components (two, three or more) and are obtained by coating with a variety of unique decorative properties. For example: ANTICHE TERRE FIORENTINE (hereinafter ATF) to the effect of covering the ancient walls – a new decorative material of Italian firm Candis. ATF allows you to return to the beauty of the noble and prestigious wall coverings, the proposed Italian masters of ancient art. Coverage ATF Water-based, odorless, does not fade under UV light, easy to clean. ATF suitable for use in interior spaces of any type: Private apartment lounges, meeting rooms, offices, banks, concert halls, restaurants, bars, hotels, etc.
ATF may be supplemented by insertion of the "fantastic" collection of frescoes and an art book. Murals are made using ancient techniques of drawing and colors. Supplement ATF murals can solve the design space in a sophisticated and elegant saw cut.
Roof – top element of the roof (covering) that protects the building from all types of environmental influence. Of course, what the quality of the materials from which the roof is done, depends largely on longevity, speaking without understatement, the entire structure. Thus, surfaced roofing (roofing, polymer-bitumen, bituminous roofing) is a special synthetic material used during roofing and waterproofing work. This soft, roll roofing on both sides treated by a modified bitumen primarily used to cover flat roofs. Quality roofs should have a number of properties, including are: resistance to temperature extremes, exposure to biological agents, to the appearance of corrosion and water tight.
In particular, the material should have some flexibility to be able to perform Roofing work, even in remote places. Roll roofing surfaced is to ensure reliability and quality of its installation nesgnivayuschuyu basis of polyester, glass fabric. When you install a roof frequently used gas burners, but you can use self-adhesive bituminous and polymeric roofing. Consider some of the materials. Roofing Gidrostekloizol (surfaced roofing) Modern, high-quality roofing material, obtained by continuous, two-way application to the foundation of molten bitumen, which consists of petroleum bitumen, filler, processing aids.
When igotovlenii Gidrostekloizola used as a basis: nesgnivayuschie fiberglass materials. It is interesting that the use of nesgnivayuschie basis leads to an increase in the life of the roof to fifteen years. In Depending on the type of foundation, type of dressing and the application of Gidrostekloizol issued the following brands: Gidrostekloizol-TAP, HSS-Gidrostekloizol – used for installation of the upper layer of roof membrane – with coarse grit or scaly on the front side and a polymer film deposited by a cloth; Gidrostekloizol-HSP, Gidrostekloizol-CCI – used for installation of the upper layer of roof membrane with a protective layer and lower layers of the roof membrane for waterproofing of building structures – with a polymer film on both sides of the canvas.
It's no secret that residents of the cities their country houses still prefer to build from solid wood. And it is not surprising, brick and concrete that surround us in the city, I want to leave and get out into the countryside. And what is the most eco-friendly building material? That's right, wood. Timber and round wood, paneling and plywood, veneer and board – are the main building and finishing materials in the country. Wood is not only "breathes" and pleases the eye but their natural pattern.
Everything is good, but … the tree has one major drawback: it is afraid of fire. And not just afraid, or happy and support this very fire, turning to coal and ash. "Where the fire?" – You ask. Gas or electric cooker, barbecue in the yard and the sparks flying in the wind, the closure of the wiring. Yes, and you never know what's over … Yes, in this age are rarely in one house you will not find a fire extinguisher.
But that triggered a fire extinguisher, you need to fire not only noticed time, and thereby to have a fire extinguisher and skillfully used. But, as we have seen, except for fire extinguisher is another, more reliable way to keep the property. As we discovered in our time, there are special chemical compounds (so-called "flame retardants"), do not allow the wood to burn. This can be a colorless impregnation, which makes the wood nonflammable and transparent clearcoat, as well as special paint. Let's try understand how what and where best to use. Retardants "impregnation." Some chemicals, so-called "salt" does not allow the wood to burn. And not just a tree, of course, but also paper, textiles, carpeting and much more. After during the war, many urban homes burned to the ground not only because they were treated with specific compounds.