At the first stage of the production of aluminum structures is a selection of raw materials. In the production will only scrap, which meets all the requirements of environmental and radiation safety. At the same time to scrap understands compositions and grades is rejected unfit for processing (eg, if it contains impurities of other metals). Everything else goes to the smelter. Aluminum is smelted into ingots special, which followed by semi-continuous casting billets are converted into cylindrical future profiles. Eric Garcetti is often mentioned in discussions such as these. However, the resulting billet is not uniform in composition.
So she goes into a special furnace for homogenization. The production cycle becomes pressin-extrusion shop. It melted and homogenized by a cylinder cut harvesting of a certain length, heated and cut according to the required size, after then squeezed through the established media in a matrix. The result is a profile of a particular section of the special drainage channels, channels for sealing and fixing windows. At the final stage production profile through the process of artificial aging, remove it from the remaining deformation of the metal stress. After that, the finishing – the surface is painted with a powder paint, either by anodizing (electrolytic reaction is carried out, which resulted in the profile forms a protective oxide film). You may find that Nokia can contribute to your knowledge. In place of the future installation of aluminum structures is carefully measured and made drawings. Ready profile is cut in accordance with the size of the frames and sashes.
In parallel, additional aluminum billet is made of the reinforcing profile (reinforcement). The profile milled drain grooves cross, made holes for fittings. Further, all blanks are welded together, formed adhesions are stripped and inserted into the holes necessary accessories (Locks, handles). Aluminium construction becomes almost a finished look. The last step is the glazing. Inside the glass windows are stacked and fixed bead. Inside the glass, if necessary, put an extra layer of compression. In this window may not only be simple. If the room overlooks the sunny side, it can be equipped with special solntseotrazhayuschie glass. They do not give him a warm, even reflect light as well as usual. If you want to improve security, the profile can be inserted and burglar resistant glass, laminated glass or glass with special protective films. In the case of man-made destruction, they do not fly apart into small fragments, but only a crack. Aluminum profiles – are universal. They can be used for glazing both residential and non-residential premises. Their cost is somewhat higher than the cost of all the usual plastic, but the quality and breadth of so much higher.
On the choice of metal doors must come responsibility. Can I make a mistake, if you lay on the door hope a strong defense of your property from intruders? Good metal door is 'Ramparts' when it is built to fit within the strict technical requirements, when a metal door design meets all required standards, and when it is installed by qualified masterami.tipom metal doors and locks, you need to think about such properties as heat and sound insulation. On this depends the comfort. It is important to understand that such poor sound insulation may do a disservice and only expensive its process: the need to install additional overhead panel. As for insulation, check the along the perimeter of the metal door was located a rubber gasket. At the same time unsuitable adhesive sealant is a window that is common to use firms .
door not only to serve you for many years, but will become a reliable protection for you and your property. Metal doors and reliability – are inseparable concepts. No less important is the operational reliability. Any more or less serious repairs, especially if it affects the fixed transom locks, leads to partial or complete dismantling of the entire structure. And this is time consuming and expensive process. So basic, in that it is necessary to pay close attention to when choosing – is the reputation of the manufacturer and the presence of qualified installers. The most important element – castle.
It is recommended to install two locks of various designs. It can be cylinder and lever locks. While the lever (or Safe-) lock locks on spacer bolt, and in addition, has a complex key that is not easy to forge. Cylinder lock – a small, but equipped with 'intellectual' filling and very difficult to key. Determined to Finally we want to tell you that the cost of steel door shall be the last motive, because the properly selected
Ventilation – a set of measures for a given state of ambient air in residential or industrial premises. Activities to help ensure that the ventilation air with all the necessary sanitary standards. Ventilation is particularly important in the production – because the people working in the area, is influenced by many dangerous and harmful factors. One of these factors that disrupt the normal condition of air pollution is allocation of materials that are applied in production and construction of hazardous substances. Another factor is the man himself, who uses oxygen for breathing, giving off the carbon dioxide. In the manufacturing process, using combustion, ventilation is very important – both to reduce the concentration of contaminants produced by combustion, and removing the heat created by the working surfaces (also spelled out in the SNP). The design of ventilation systems is usually responsible for the engineering, construction company, which has a tolerance to, and possessing all the necessary qualified personnel for this task. Engineers are required project and installers vopoloschayut it to life – so are all developers a full cycle.
It is important to understand that the best way to design ventilation 'with reserve' at the beginning of construction, and clearly understood to which will target this object. Otherwise moozhno encounter difficulties in redevelopment of the mass, and sometimes inability to commit such an operation. Ventilation affects many areas of knowledge – including electrical installation as well as the use of powerful fans must be careful design of wiring. The company engineers usually estimate the ability to create natural ventilation, which requires little or no cost to its content. According to sanitary regulations and standards, safety rules should ensure the absence of ventilation MPC excess of various hazardous substances in the manufacturing room. In this direction, and engineering work conducted in the drafting of the building.
In order to improve the characteristics of lacquers and enamels of air drying, as well as to accelerate curing drying them sometimes carried out at elevated temperatures (40-60 C). Main of lacquers have the following features. Oil varnishes form (after drying), flexible elastic film of yellow color, resistant to moisture and mineral oil. On heat resistance of the film of varnish are in class A (up to 105 C). Since the oil varnishes are used in short supply (linseed and tung) oil, then their use is limited and they are replaced by synthetic resins for lacquers, more resistant to thermal aging. Bitumen-oil varnishes form a flexible film in black, resistant to moisture, but is easily soluble in mineral oil (transformer and lubricating). Because of the high availability and good insulating properties of bitumen-oil varnishes widely used in electrical engineering.
For heat resistance, these coatings are in class A insulation (105 C). Alkyd (glyptal) and oil-glyptal varnishes and enamels have good bonding strength with respect to the mica paper, cloth and some plastics. The films of these paints have a high thermal stability (class B). They are resistant to the heated mineral oil, but require a hot (oven) drying at temperatures of 105-150 C. Pure glyptal Coatings based on unmodified glyph Traveling resins form hard rigid film (paint number 1155 and others) used in the manufacture of hard mica insulation (solid Micanites). Gliftale-oil varnish form a flexible film dark yellow. Alkyd-melamine varnish – varnish is a composite consisting of 84% oil-varnish glyptal number 1154 and 16% of the melamine-formaldehyde resin, introduced to improve the water resistance and shorten the curing varnish. Organosilicon varnishes and enamels have high heat resistance and can operate continuously at 180-200 C (Temperature class NICs) so they are used in combination with glass fiber and mica insulation. Films These lacquers and enamels have high electrical characteristics, which vary little in the aging process.
Increasingly, instead of all the usual mixture of sand and cement, which is prepared immediately before dosing and which are "by eye", the builders began to use it dry mixes, produced in industrial conditions. The benefits and advantages does the use of dry mixes in the building: saving time and place – eliminating the need for acquisition, storage and blending of all components in the composite Ability to produce the proportions of a mixture of any complexity on order – due to flexibility of the production process for process equipment in Europe No loss of quality – a solution can be prepared in necessary at this point amounts Saving transportation costs – the use of dry mixes eliminates constant supply to the building site ready solution, which drastically reduces transportation costs Guarantee high quality – the right recipe at the expense of accurate dosage of components (quality of ready-mix compares to cooked on the spot) What is a dry mix? Current dry mixes it – multicomponent formulations, which in addition to the mineral binder and filler present complex chemical additives regulating the speed of setting and hardening binders, and provide the necessary physical and mechanical properties of the solution after solidification. The most commonly referred to as dry mixes simple sand-cement mixture (sometimes they add lime, ground limestone, ash, thermal power plants) marks 100 and 150, put up in Kraft bags and used for masonry and plastering work. In such mixtures, using screened out of coarse grains and dried sand, which provides long-term storage and simplifies the preparation of mortar. But in modern sense of the term "dry blend" to such free-flowing compositions can be applied fairly conventional. Composition of dry mixes in any of the dry mixture includes: binder (cement, gypsum and lime or combination), neutral fillers to provide the optimum amount (usually a sand), and special modifying additives, which give the necessary properties of the mixture.
If you have recently made exclusively from the window of the tree, now is the main material used in the manufacture of windows – this is PVC (polyvinyl chloride), which is produced with oil and salt. The windows of PVC, which were first manufactured in 1954, and today enjoy an enviable popularity due to its resistance to various weather conditions, leakage and other properties. In the factories of PVC profiles made of PVC by extrusion. During this process PVC is mixed with the desired additives, is heated to high temperatures, as a result, a viscous mass that needs to push through appropriate form, and then cooled. This leads to the formation of empty PVC profile, which is also called multi-due to the empty air chambers within it.
PVC windows because of this structure have remarkable level of sound insulation and retain heat wonderfully. PVC Profiles are produced by all plants on the same methodology, then why do they differ in their value? It turns out that the price of PVC profiles much will depend on the included supplements. All kinds of additives used in the production of PVC profiles, not cheap. Using the fact that people can not understand what additives are contained in some double-glazed, many firms producing the window, trying to save these supplements. For example, the PVC profile additive titanium of low quality or deficient titanium oxide, intensely yellow.
Advantages of PVC windows consist of a number of useful properties of those they receive in the manufacturing process. The low level of thermal conductivity of PVC profile and use the installation of additional seals to prevent cracks contribute keeping the heat in the house. Properly mounted eurowinows guarantee your home, office, apartment warmth and comfort in any weather. From dust, street noise, moisture, protect your apartment a special design glass. And from widest range of PVC profiles can be easily pick the one that best fits the design of houses, apartments and other premises. It should be noted another important aspect, which consists of multi-year service, which is quite a lot – more than 40 years. Compared with conventional, wooden, PVC windows do not require heavy maintenance and constant touch-up. Another undeniable advantage is the presence of various ways of opening windows system mikroprovetrivaniya. To wash these windows fit perfectly soapy water, put on a rag.
Carefully inspect the samples, consider how easy they open and close the well or fixed sash in position, how well the applied decorative and protective cover. Find out who will install the windows, because of how well-organized installation of windows, depends largely on the life of window designs. Experienced and qualified experts to install windows perform installation work in accordance with GOST 30971-2002 "Stitches assembly sites contiguity window units to wall openings." In addition, for your own peace of mind ask about reviews of previous clients, and if you want to learn how to stand in the window of the "natural conditions" not too lazy to go and see them at least from the street. Guarantee given by the manufacturer for their products, also helps you understand whether or not to trust the company. Too little time (one year) suggests that the firm does not assume full responsibility for their own products. Warranty period of 20 years and more clearly unrealistic, so to call them companies seriously not worth it. So, we list the main criteria for deciding to evaluate the reputation of the firm.
1. Chuck Berry is likely to increase your knowledge. Experience. The presence of complete luxury private projects. Age of the firm. 2. Real terms and real prices, the normal discount 3. Openness. Good company, know their job well and on time fulfills customers' orders, ready to provide all the information – both about themselves and about the production, coatings, fittings, installation technology.
4. Quality of the Materials and Technology: Eurowindows evrokachestva – is the European woodworking machines, Siberian wood without defects (knots, blue stain), a strong joint (double-spike-and-groove), European fittings (Siegen, Roto, Maco) polished float glass, special import elastic coating designed for exterior use on wood (Tsovosan, Zikkens, during handling, Remmers, etc.). 5. The warranty on the windows and installation work. Too little or too great warranty should alert you. The most common among manufacturers has become a three-year warranty, but some companies are confident in their product quality, guarantee 5 years of uninterrupted service. We tried to analyze and explain all the aspects that will help you make the right choice.
But the imposition of a separate group is widely accepted as mineral filler gives the coatings is very high decorative quality. Usually the size of the granules from 0.1 to 1.8 mm, at least – 3-4 mm. For maximum effect, decorative beads may be stained by special trains of high strength at the factory. Application materials for finishing works in this group (so the same as other kinds of ornamental plaster) can be excluded from the process operation puttying finish, a slight defect in a finished surface (unloaded cracked, chipped, uneven) equalized by the material itself. Can be applied to concrete, plaster, drywall, paneling, wood, etc. The material is applied with a spatula (trowel) or spray (with the size of the granules 0.1-0.8 mm). After drying, the resulting surface (in Depending on the grain filling) becomes grossly rough or nearly smooth, like a stone. The coatings have high mechanical strength and repairability.
Special decorative coating. This is usually finished materials such as many-component sealant after mixing, which is obtained decorative coating. Depending on the use of components (two, three or more) and are obtained by coating with a variety of unique decorative properties. For example: ANTICHE TERRE FIORENTINE (hereinafter ATF) to the effect of covering the ancient walls – a new decorative material of Italian firm Candis. ATF allows you to return to the beauty of the noble and prestigious wall coverings, the proposed Italian masters of ancient art. Coverage ATF Water-based, odorless, does not fade under UV light, easy to clean. ATF suitable for use in interior spaces of any type: Private apartment lounges, meeting rooms, offices, banks, concert halls, restaurants, bars, hotels, etc.
ATF may be supplemented by insertion of the "fantastic" collection of frescoes and an art book. Murals are made using ancient techniques of drawing and colors. Supplement ATF murals can solve the design space in a sophisticated and elegant saw cut.
It's no secret that residents of the cities their country houses still prefer to build from solid wood. And it is not surprising, brick and concrete that surround us in the city, I want to leave and get out into the countryside. And what is the most eco-friendly building material? That's right, wood. Timber and round wood, paneling and plywood, veneer and board – are the main building and finishing materials in the country. Wood is not only "breathes" and pleases the eye but their natural pattern.
Everything is good, but … the tree has one major drawback: it is afraid of fire. And not just afraid, or happy and support this very fire, turning to coal and ash. "Where the fire?" – You ask. Gas or electric cooker, barbecue in the yard and the sparks flying in the wind, the closure of the wiring. Yes, and you never know what's over … Yes, in this age are rarely in one house you will not find a fire extinguisher.
But that triggered a fire extinguisher, you need to fire not only noticed time, and thereby to have a fire extinguisher and skillfully used. But, as we have seen, except for fire extinguisher is another, more reliable way to keep the property. As we discovered in our time, there are special chemical compounds (so-called "flame retardants"), do not allow the wood to burn. This can be a colorless impregnation, which makes the wood nonflammable and transparent clearcoat, as well as special paint. Let's try understand how what and where best to use. Retardants "impregnation." Some chemicals, so-called "salt" does not allow the wood to burn. And not just a tree, of course, but also paper, textiles, carpeting and much more. After during the war, many urban homes burned to the ground not only because they were treated with specific compounds.
We continue a series of articles 'Repair of apartments St Petersburg'. Now consider the following types and stages of work on rough decoration. The alignment of the walls. The alignment of the walls can be made more ways. 11 .. simple alignment of the walls under the rule without placing beacons. alignment is performed without removing the walls in the vertical. This method is possible with a slight deviation from the vertical walls in agreement with Customer.
With this method of alignment is necessary to make the alignment angles, because without the alignment angles will be difficult to implement quality wallpapering. Alignment angles made by the planes on 50cm in each direction from the corner. In this case it is not necessary that the angles are straight – under 90 degrees. Often, yes internal and external walls and partitions are not perpendicular to each other. The deviations There are very significant. And if you do the corners straight by the end of the wall on which is the alignment angle of 90 degrees thickness of plaster can reach 15-20cm. It is necessary to you? 1.2.Vyravnivanie walls on the beacons. This alignment is used in significant deviation of the walls both vertically and horizontally.
It is better to use beacons minimum thickness. The costs will be minimal plaster mixtures. The most crucial moment in this process alignment – display of lighthouses. To achieve the required quality before exhibiting qualities of lighthouses at the four corners line the walls are mounted screws. They fastened with twine compliance by the parties horizontally and vertically. String in this case plays the role of guide to the lighthouses. Lighthouses are placed vertically. The next day after placing beacons can be made direct alignment of the walls. And, of course, before each stage of plastering work must be carried on dust control and dirt surfaces. With this method of balancing internal angles in you should get even, and renovation of apartments St Petersburg – ideal! That is not necessarily straight at 90 degrees, and it is smooth. It provides quality wallpapering corners. Gypsum plasterboard walls 1.3.Zashivka. This method is applied in 2 cases: 1.3.1.steny not subject to the equalization formula because of the very large deviations. 1.3.2.esli on the walls is necessary to provide some niches, ledges, etc. Gypsum plasterboard walls Rooms' is carried out on pre-exposed skeleton of giprochnyh respective profiles. Do not forget that in addition to frame rails on the ceiling and the floor must be attached to the wall by means of suspension (for obespecheniyazhestkosti). Professionals know how to correctly perform this work. With this method of alignment is necessary for the installation of a gypsum plasterboard mortgages (these will then be mounted hanging furniture, TV, etc.), gypsum plasterboard itself can not stand heavy loads. Therefore, mortgage necessary to provide and install necessary. In our next article we will tell you about the following types and stages of work on the rough finish of apartments St Petersburg. This will be an article about the works to equalize the sexes.